سازمان ملل متحد هفتاد و دوساله شد

آری همین سازمانی که امروز تهدید به کاهش کمک های ایالات متحده و اسرائیل می گردد، سالروز هفتادو دومین سالگره اش را سپری می کند.
قبل از ایجاد سازمان ملل متحد جامعۀ جهانی موسسۀ دیگری را بوجود آورده بود که بنام "جامعۀ ملل" یاد میشد این مؤسسه که در شرایط زورگویی های قدرت های وقت پا به عرصۀ وجود گذاشته بود، خود نیز پختگی بنیادی را حایز نبود و لذا در اوایل آغاز جنگ جهانی دوم از میان رفت

  سازمان ملل متحد که محصول نتایج و عواقب نابسامانی ها و جنگ های خانمانسوز – مخصوصاً دوجنگ جهانی اول (1914- 1918 )  و دوم (1939- 1945 ) بود، بعد از مساعی و تلاش های متواتر و پیهم که از سال های تقریباً آغاز جنگ دوم به راه افتاده بود،عروج خود را شکل می داد؛ "اعلامیۀ متحدین" – که بیانیۀ دولت های متحد ضد آلمان نازی بود، در 12 جون 1941 به نشر رسید که حصه ای از ماهیت مسودۀ "منشور ملل متحد" را حاوی بود، به دنبال آن "منشور اتلانتیک" که در بحر اتلانتیک میان دولانو روزولت رئیس جمهور امریکا و وینستون چرچیل به امضاء رسید، جزء دیگری برای منبع مسودۀ مربوط شناخته شد، سپس "اعلامیۀ ملل متحد" که تعهدی میان 26 دولت بود در اول جنوری 1942 به امضاء رسید، به دنبال آن کنفرانس های مسکو در 30 اکتوبر سال 1943 توسط چند دولت مقتدر وقت دایر و در یک سند مهم بر ایجاد یک سازمان جهانی تأکید گردید، متعاقباً در اول دسامبر 1943 استالین، روزولت و چرچیل در کنفرانس تهران برای ساختن یک مؤسسۀ جهانی تأکید به عمل آوردند، به تعقیب آن در کنفرانس های "دامبارتان اوکس" واشنگتن دی سی، متخصصان کشور های بزرگ وقت از 21 اگست تا 28 سپتامبر 1944 به تحقیقات و کار لازم پیرامون تشکیل موسسۀ مربوط تتبعات لازم را به اجرا گذاشتند، کار های حرفه یی این گروه کاری از 29 سپتامبر تا 7 اکتوبر 1944 در چوکات یک کمیسیون ادامه یافت، این همه مساعی به صورت  مسودۀ سندی  مشتمل بر 12 فصل که به طور عمده اهداف و اصول سازمان بین المللی مورد نظر را احتواء می نمود، به صورت یک پروژه طرح شد که مقاصد عمدۀ آن " چگونگی برقراری امنیت و صلح جهانی" و " همکاری اقتصادی و اجتماعی" میان کشور ها را مشخص می نمود.در طرح یا پروژۀ مسودۀ منشور ملل متحد مسؤولیت حفظ صلح و امنیت، برعهدۀ "شورای امنیت" گذاشته شد، که مرکب از پنج قدرت بزرگ وقت دنیا (ایالات متحدۀ امریکا، اتحاد شوروی، چین، انگلستان و فرانسه) بود، اما بنابر اینکه این پنج قدرت به صورت استثنایی و خلاف حق تساوی دول دارای "حق ویتو" باشند، پروژه مورد بحث به اختلاف رأی مواجه گردید و موضوع به کنفرانس "یالتا" محول شد.
در 11 فبروری 1945 کنفرانس یالتا تدویر یافت، که در آن امریکا، شوروی، انگلیس،حصه گرفتند، دولت وقت چین با تأئید پروژه از شرکت خود اطمینان داد. اما دولت فرانسه بدون تأئید قبلی پروژه، صرف شرکت خود در کنفرانس مربوط را اعلام نمود.
کنفرانس سانفراسیسکو که تقریباً آخرین مرحلۀ کاری برای تسوید و تصویب منشور سازمان ملل متحد می باشد در سال 1945 بالای موضوع به صورت جدی کار نمود.
 از 8 تا 21 فبروری 1945بیست کشور امریکای لاتین درمکسیکو ستی مجلس نموده و دو نکتۀ قابل اعتراض را مورد انتقاد قراردادند؛ یکی داشتن حق ویتوی پنج قدرت بزرگ و دیگرعدم تعارض سازمان های منطقوی موجود و دوام فعالیت آنها – که برای کشور های نامبرده اهمیت بشری داشت - . اما با آنهم مسودۀ مورد بحث یا پروژه و طرح منشور ملل متحد که در 19 فصل و111 ماده تدوین شده بود، در کنفرانس سانفرانسیسکو به تأریخ 25 جون 1945 به اتفاق آراء به تصویب رسید، "اساسنامۀ محکمۀ بین المللی عدالت" جزء تفکیک ناپذیر آن شناخته و قبول گردید. بعد از آن که دول بزرگ وقت مشتمل بر امریکا، شوروی، چین، انگلیس، فرانسه و دیگر کشور ها سند تصویبی منشور ملل متحد را به ادارۀ مربوط تسلیم نمودند، منشور ملل متحد نافذ یا لازم الاجرا شد وسازمان ملل متحد رسماً و عملاً ایجاد شده و شروع به فعالیت نمود.
مجمع عمومی سازمان ملل متحد در 31 اکتوبر 1971 به وسیلۀ یک قطعنامه، روز 24 اکتوبر را "روز ملل متحد" 
نام گذاری کرده و آنرا قابل برگزاری دانست. 
افغانستان در ماه نوامبر 1946 به عضویت ملل متحد در آمد. 
سازمان ملل متحد به هدف حفظ صلح، امنیت و مناسبات اقتصادی و اجتماعی بین المللی بوجود آمد که از آن روز تا حالا تکامل و تحولات متعددی را در خود دیده است.
موسسات و تشکیلات اساسی سازمان ملل متحد از این قرار است:
1 – شورای امنیت که  حالا در حدود 15 عضو دارد که پنج عضو دائمی آن (امریکا، روسیه، چین، انگلستان و فرانسه ) دارای حق ویتو می باشند.
2 – مجمع عمومی : در واقع همانند یک پارلمان اجرای وظیفه میکند و اعضای آن سران دول و یا نمایندگان عالی رتبۀ کشور ها می باشند.
3 – محکمۀ بین المللی عدالت که وظیفۀ آن رسیدگی و حل اختلافات  حقوقی وغیر سیاسی  (اقتصادی، تجاری و...) دول است.
4 – شورای اقتصادی و اجتماعی
5 – سکرتریت: که مشمول سرمنشی ملل متحد نیز میگردد.  
6 – شورای قیمومیت.
موسسات فرعی سازمان ملل متحد:
کمیسیون های فرعی متعلق به مجمع عمومی
-    شورای حقوق بشر ملل متحد: این شوری قبلاً تا سال 2004 یک کمیسیون مثل سایر کمیسیون های ملل متحد بود اما از آن سال به بعد به حیث شورای حقوق بشر سازمان ملل متحد فعالیت می نماید. 
-    کمیساریای ملل متحد برای پناهندگان
-    کنفرانس تجارت و توسعۀ ملل متحد
......
سازمان ملل متحد دارای موسسات تخصصی و منطقوی زیاد می باشد از جمله موسسۀ یونسکو  که جزء ارگان های مهم فرعی و تخصصی ملل متحد شمرده می شود.
ملل متحد و ارکان اصلی و فرعی آن در جهان مخصوصاً در کشور ما خدمات مهمی را انجام داده است، چه در زمان اشغال شوروی و جنگ آزادیبخش مردم با افغان ها کمک و مساعدت نموده است و چه بعد از سقوط نظام طالب ها افغانستان در اوایل در تحت مصونیت ملل متحد اداره می شده است.
اما سازمان ملل متحد به علت محل اجرای سیاست های سلطه جویانۀ بعضی از دول قدرتمند جهان در اجرای وظایفش فراز ونشیب های زیادی را طی کرده است مخصوصاً دولت های دارای حق ویتو از این صلاحیت غیر منصفانۀ خویش استفاده های نامناسب نموده اند؛ حتی تاحدی که مردم و عدالت خواهان جهان چند سال قبل نهضتی را آغاز نمودند که هدف آن توسعۀ اعضای دائمی شورای امنیت ملل متحد بوده است، این نهضت خواهان فسخ کامل حق ویتوی دول بزرگ گردیده و حتی فهرست مختصر دولی را که مستحق عضویت دائمی شورای امنیت  ملل متحد باشند نیز مفروض کرده بودند و خواهان آن بودند که اگر حق ویتو فسخ نمی شود، پس دول تازه وارد عضو دائمی شورای امنیت ملل متحد نیز باید دارای صلاحیت ویتو باشند در آن فهرست فرضی اسمای دول جمهوری اتحادی آلمان، جمهوری هند، برازیل، مصر و... درج شده بود.
و گاهی هم نهضت های بوده اند که به خاطر زیاده روی های ایالات متحدۀ امریکا درسازمان متحد، خواهان تغییر مقر سازمان ملل متحد – که فعلاً در نیویارک امریکا است -  به کشور و محل دیگر می گردیده اند.  
ایالات متحدۀ امریکا از مدت ها به این سو کمک های خویش را به سازمان فرهنگی ملل متحد"یونسکو" قطع نموده است و حالا بنابر روش های مغایر خواست امریکا، رئیس جمهور آن "دونالد ترامپ"  و دولت اسرائیل که متحد او می باشد مصمم اند از عضویت یونسکو خارج شوند.
همچنان رئیس جمهور نامبرده تصمیم دارد کمک هایش را به ملل متحد کاهش دهد تا به وسیلۀ وارد کردن این فشار آن سازمان را آمادۀ محل اجرای سیاست های خویش قراردهد.
سازمان ملل متحد فعلی علی الرغم نقاط ضعف جدی، در طول موجودیت خود در مرحله ای قرار دارد که هیچ وقتی  همانند حالا به این حد تمایلات انسانی نه داشته است. این سازمان در وضع فعلی خود از سوی عناصر انسان دوست و ترقی خواه دول رو به انکشاف حمایت و پشتیبانی می شود . 

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